Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily



Wed, 17 Jul 2024 20:41:02 EDT
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Polyphenols are generally toxic to microorganisms. In peatlands, scientists thought microorganisms avoided this toxicity by degrading polyphenols using an oxygen-dependent enzyme, and thus that low-oxygen conditions inhibit microbes' carbon cycling. However, a new study found that Arctic peatland microorganisms used alternative enzymes, with and without oxygen, to break down polyphenols. This suggests carbon stored in these ecosystems is more at risk than previously thought.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:25:00 EDT
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An environmental engineering team has discovered that specific bacterial species can cleave the strong fluorine-to-carbon bond certain kinds of 'forever chemical' water pollutants, offering promise for low-cost treatments of contaminated drinking water.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:24:49 EDT
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As sea ice disappears and grows less reflective, the Arctic has lost around a quarter of its cooling power since 1980, and the world has lost up to 15%, according to new research.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:24:43 EDT
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Burst sine wave electroporation was found to cause less damage to cells and tissue but more disruption to the blood-brain barrier.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:24:40 EDT
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Cut marks on fossils could be evidence of humans exploiting large mammals in Argentina more than 20,000 years ago, according to a new study.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:24:36 EDT
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Researchers have developed and validated a new tool for comparing gender inequality among different regions of a country, highlighting links between gender inequality, wellbeing, and participation in the #MeToo movement within the United States.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:24:32 EDT
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In a study of several thousand companies in England, mental health training for line managers was associated with organizational-level benefits, including lower levels of long-term mental health-related sickness absence and better business performance, customer service, and staff recruitment and retention.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:24:08 EDT
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Have you ever wondered how insects are able to go so far beyond their home and still find their way? The answer to this question is not only relevant to biology but also to making the AI for tiny, autonomous robots. Drone-researchers felt inspired by biological findings on how ants visually recognize their environment and combine it with counting their steps in order to get safely back home. They have used these insights to create an insect-inspired autonomous navigation strategy for tiny, lightweight robots. It allows such robots to come back home after long trajectories, while requiring extremely little computation and memory (0.65 kiloByte per 100 m). In the future, tiny autonomous robots could find a wide range of uses, from monitoring stock in warehouses to finding gas leaks in industrial sites.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:24:05 EDT
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Researchers have developed soft, stretchable 'jelly batteries' that could be used for wearable devices or soft robotics, or even implanted in the brain to deliver drugs or treat conditions such as epilepsy.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:24:02 EDT
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The most threatened reef fishes are also the most overlooked by scientists and the general public. Scientists measured the level of human interest in 2,408 species of marine reef fish and found that the attention of the scientific community is attracted by the commercial value more than the ecological value of the fishes. The public, on the other hand, is primarily influenced by the aesthetic characteristics of certain species, such as the red lionfish (Pterois volitans) and the mandarinfish (Synchiropus splendidus).
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:23:57 EDT
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Researchers engineered a new technique to identify at the nanoscale level what components are overheating in electronics and causing their performance to fail.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:23:54 EDT
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The human genome is filled with flecks of DNA left behind by viruses that infected primate ancestors tens of millions of years ago. Scientists used to think they were harmless, but new research shows that, when reawakened, they help cancer survive and thrive.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:23:51 EDT
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Researchers have uncovered an under the sea phenomenon where coral-destroying crown-of-thorns starfish larvae have been feasting on blue-green algae bacteria known as 'sea sawdust'.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:23:49 EDT
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When it comes to diatoms that live in the ocean, new research suggests that photosynthesis is not the only strategy for accumulating carbon. Instead, these single-celled plankton are also building biomass by feeding directly on organic carbon in wide swaths of the ocean. These new findings could lead to reduced estimates regarding how much carbon dioxide diatoms pull out of the air via photosynthesis, which in turn, could alter our understanding of the global carbon cycle, which is especially relevant given the changing climate.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 16:23:10 EDT
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The discovery of a hybrid population of poplar trees in western Wyoming has provided insight into how natural hybridization informs the evolution of many plant species, according to researchers. They also said their discovery suggests that genetic exchange between species may be critical for adaptation to environmental change.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:11:28 EDT
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New research has examined the fossil record going back 66 million years and tracked changes to mammalian ecosystems and species diversity on the North American continent.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:11:16 EDT
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In an era when the creation of artificial intelligence (AI) images is at the fingertips of the masses, the ability to detect fake pictures -- particularly deepfakes of people -- is becoming increasingly important. So what if you could tell just by looking into someone's eyes? That's the compelling finding of new research which suggests that AI-generated fakes can be spotted by analyzing human eyes in the same way that astronomers study pictures of galaxies.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:11:07 EDT
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Adolescents consume around two-thirds of their daily calories from ultra-processed foods (UPFs) new research has found. The study found that UPF consumption was highest among adolescents from deprived backgrounds, those of white ethnicity, and younger adolescents.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:11:04 EDT
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Australian engineers have unveiled a clever new device -- based on a modified speargun -- as a cheap and efficient way to test seabed soil when designing offshore wind farms.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:11:00 EDT
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Researchers have used eye-tracking to study airport security screeners' performance during different visual inspection phases of a screening task.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:58 EDT
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Researchers have developed a hydrogel implant that can help prevent endometriosis, a condition that affects a great many women. This innovation also acts as a contraceptive.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:56 EDT
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High-protein diets, known as 'Paleolithic diets', are popular. Using mouse models, scientists have studied their impact. While effective in regulating weight and stabilizing diabetes, these diets are not without risks. Excess protein greatly increases ammonium production, overwhelming the liver. Excess ammonium can cause neurological disorders and, in severe cases, lead to coma. These results suggest caution when following these diets.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:49 EDT
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Opioids have long been known as natural substances with substantial pharmacological effect. They have been used as effective painkillers. Researchers have now identified a natural active substance that may prove to be an effective alternative to opioids in the long run and could also help mitigate the opioid crisis.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:47 EDT
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A large study of 35,000 children from eight countries has found a 'robust' link between exposure to green spaces in early childhood and better lung function. The study used data from 10 European birth cohorts from 8 countries to conduct a meta-analysis. This assessment of the data was done at the individual level for each participant.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:45 EDT
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New experimental results show particles called muons can be corralled into beams suitable for high-energy collisions, paving the way for new physics.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:39 EDT
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An international team of physicists has proven new theorems in quantum mechanics that describe the 'energy landscapes' of collections of quantum particles. Their work addresses decades-old questions, opening up new routes to make computer simulation of materials much more accurate. This, in turn, may help scientists design a suite of materials that could revolutionize green technologies.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:37 EDT
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Investment in research into genetics could dramatically improve educational policies and understanding of parenting in ways that could help all children, according to a new paper.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:34 EDT
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Researchers propose an improvement in the identification of human remains using craniofacial superimposition. The forensic identification technique is based on the analysis of a skull (post-mortem) and photographs of the person's face (ante-mortem). It represents a major step in making objective decisions that are based on the ability to quantify the probability that a skull matches the photographs being examined.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:32 EDT
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Opioid medications offer people relief from debilitating pain, but these drugs come with dangers: the risk for addiction, miserable withdrawal symptoms and the potential for fatal overdose. Researchers have now identified a strategy to design safer opioids. They showed that an experimental opioid, which binds to an unconventional spot in the receptor, suppresses pain in animal models with fewer side effects -- most notably those linked to fatal overdoses.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:30 EDT
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When you think of a battery, you probably don't think stretchy. But batteries will need this shape-shifting quality to be incorporated into flexible electronics, which are gaining traction for wearable health monitors. Now, researchers report a lithium-ion battery with entirely stretchable components, including an electrolyte layer that can expand by 5000%, and it retains its charge storage capacity after nearly 70 charge/discharge cycles.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:28 EDT
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Researchers have found that intense stress can be felt at the cellular level and is linked to negative physical and mental health effects.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:24 EDT
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Pet cats may be excellent animal models for the study of obesity origins and treatment in humans, a new study of feline gut microbes suggests -- and both species would likely get healthier in the research process, scientists say.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:22 EDT
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Decline in memory and other thinking abilities is the most well-known result of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, many individuals with this condition also experience mental health symptoms such as agitation, depression, apathy, and trouble with sleep. A new study has found that the pathology behind AD may be a direct reason for emotional and behavioral symptoms. Additionally, they discovered when individuals with AD experience decline in memory and thinking abilities, their mental health tends to be worse.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:20 EDT
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Strawberries could be fewer and more expensive because of higher temperatures caused by climate change, according to new research.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:13 EDT
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A newly engineered type of soil can capture water out of thin air to keep plants hydrated and manage controlled release of fertilizer for a constant supply of nutrients.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:11 EDT
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Current screening protocols fail to catch a notable number of people carrying genetic mutations associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome and Lynch syndrome, which increase the risk of developing certain cancers, according to new findings.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:07 EDT
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Researchers have established new criteria for a memory-loss syndrome in older adults that specifically impacts the brain's limbic system. It can often be mistaken for Alzheimer's disease.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:04 EDT
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A medication used to treat diabetic neuropathy may make chemotherapy treatments more effective for patients with lung cancer, according to new findings.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:10:00 EDT
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New research demonstrates that the socioeconomic status (SES) of cell donors affects the health outcomes of blood cancer patients who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:09:58 EDT
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A new study has shown that experiences of moving during childhood -- whether between or within deprived or non-deprived neighborhoods -- is associated with significantly higher rates of depression in adulthood. The research analyzed the residential locations of almost 1.1 million people born in Denmark between 1981 and 2001 and who stayed in the country during the first 15 years of their lives. It then tracked those same individuals into adulthood, and found at least 35,000 of those still living within Denmark had subsequently received a medical diagnosis of depression.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:09:56 EDT
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During an event, details like what you saw, smelled, and felt aren't stored as a single memory. Rather, they are encoded and stored in your brain separately. To retrieve that memory, those pieces must get put back together. When that doesn't happen in the right way or details are distorted, it can lead to the creation of false memories. Now researchers have evidence that the common cuttlefish may create false memories, too.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:09:53 EDT
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The newly discovered planet TIC 241249530 b has the most highly elliptical, or eccentric, orbit of any known planet. It appears to be a juvenile planet that is in the midst of becoming a hot Jupiter, and its orbit is providing some answers to how such large, scorching planets evolve.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:09:49 EDT
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Researchers report that psilocybin, the active ingredient in magic mushrooms, destabilizes a critical network of brain areas involved in introspective thinking. The findings provide a neurobiological explanation for the drug's mind-bending effects.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:09:47 EDT
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Researchers have developed a novel prompt, or 'nudge,' embedded in the electronic health record that flags, for treating surgeons, older patients with early-stage breast cancer who may be at risk for unnecessary lymph node surgery.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:09:43 EDT
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Scientists have generated a new catalog of human gene expression data from around the world to address how most research in human genetics has historically focused on people of European ancestries -- a bias that may limit the accuracy of scientific predictions for people from other populations.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:09:33 EDT
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Despite facing regional threats like deforestation and wildfires, the world's forests continue to be a powerful weapon in the fight against climate change. A new study reveals these vital ecosystems have consistently absorbed carbon dioxide for the past three decades, even as disruptions chip away at their capacity. The study, based on long-term ground measurements combined with remote sensing data, found that forests take up an average of 3.5 0.4 billion metric tons of carbon per year, which is nearly half of the carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels between 1990 and 2019.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:09:24 EDT
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Researchers have demonstrated that the layered multiferroic material nickel iodide (NiI2) may be the best candidate yet for devices such as magnetic computer memory that are extremely fast and compact. Specifically, they found that NiI2 has greater magnetoelectric coupling than any known material of its kind.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:09:12 EDT
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Researchers have analysed data from 127 studies to reveal 'thresholds' for when logged rainforests lose the ability to sustain themselves. The results could widen the scope of which forests are considered 'worth' conserving, but also show how much logging degrades forests beyond the point of no return.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:08:59 EDT
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A distinct signaling pathway called TNF- drives the transformation of epithelial cells into aggressive tumor cells. During cancer progression, cells activate their own TNF- program and become invasive. This finding could help to improve early detection and treatment of patients with cancers in skin, esophagus, bladder or colon.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:08:57 EDT
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Genomes can now be used to store information about a variety of transient biological events inside of living cells, as they happen, like a flight recorder collecting data from an aircraft. The method, called ENGRAM, aims to turn cells into their own historians. ENGRAM couples each kind of biological signal or event inside a cell to a symbolic barcode. This new strategy traces and archives the type and timing of biological signals inside the cell by inserting this information into the genome. For example, this record-keeping can track the commands that turn genes on or off.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:08:51 EDT
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Scientists have identified more than 1,000 previously undetected proteins in common metabolite samples, which persist despite extraction methods designed to weed them out. The findings give scientists new insights and tools for improving future metabolomics experiments, including a novel protocol for removing these proteins during the extraction process. The study does not invalidate prior results but instead reinforces the importance of appropriate controls and validation in experimental design and analysis.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:07:41 EDT
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Biology researchers have developed a new antibody therapy that can neutralize a wide variety of HIV-1 strains. They found success in an unlikely source -- llamas.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:03:57 EDT
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Damping vibrations is crucial for precision experiments, for example in astronomy. A new invention uses a special kind of magnets to achieve this -- electropermanent magnets. They consist of a permanent magnet and a coil. In contrast to electromagnets, they do not have to be permanently supplied with energy. In contrast to permanent magnets, their strength can be tuned: Whenever necessary, a strong electric pulse is sent through the coil, adapting the properties of the magnet.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:00:57 EDT
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Researchers have developed the chatbot Iris, which offers informatics students personalized assistance with programming assignments. A study has now confirmed the chatbot's success: Iris improves the understanding of programming concepts and represents a valuable complement to human tutors.
Wed, 17 Jul 2024 12:00:45 EDT
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Snot might not be the first place you'd expect nanobots to be swimming around. But this slimy secretion exists in more places than just your nose and piles of dirty tissues -- it also lines and helps protect the lungs, stomach, intestines and eyes. And now, researchers have demonstrated in mice that their tiny, enzyme-powered 'snot bots' can push through the defensive, sticky layer and potentially deliver drugs more efficiently.
Tue, 16 Jul 2024 20:23:04 EDT
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Researchers have identified a new way to make opioids safer, increasing the pain-relieving properties of opioids while decreasing unwanted side effects through the spinal inhibition of a Heat shock protein 90 isoform.
Tue, 16 Jul 2024 20:23:02 EDT
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CRISPR-Cas systems, defense systems in bacteria, have become a plentiful source of technologies for molecular diagnostics. Researchers have now expanded this extensive toolbox further. Their novel method, called PUMA, enables the detection of RNA with Cas12 nucleases, which naturally target DNA. PUMA promises a wide range of applications and high accuracy.
Tue, 16 Jul 2024 20:22:59 EDT
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Rigorous exercise before bed has long been discouraged, but researchers have now found short bursts of light activity can lead to better sleep.
Tue, 16 Jul 2024 20:22:57 EDT
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A new, large study confirms earlier findings that children with an autistic sibling have a 20% chance of being autistic themselves.
Tue, 16 Jul 2024 20:22:52 EDT
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The largest neuroimaging study of conduct disorder to date has revealed extensive changes in brain structure among young people with the disorder. The largest difference was a smaller area of the brain's outer layer, known as the cerebral cortex, which is critical for many aspects of behavior, cognition and emotion.